Special considerations for the ED care of IV drug users:
1) Increased risk for immunocompromising illnesses such as HIV, hepatitis
2) IVDU can also lead to primary immune system dysfunction
3) Specific conditions that are of greater concern in IV drug users: cellulitis, epidural abscess, renal abscess, osteomyelitis, endocarditis
4) Update tetanus
5) Investigate social determinants of health and address as able
A thoracolumbar fracture is considered unstable if:
a) more than one column is involved
b) a vertebrae has acutely lost >50% height
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